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At its heart, Sail is the docker-compose.yml file and the sail script that is stored at the root of your project. The sail script provides a CLI with convenient methods for interacting with the Docker containers defined by the docker-compose.yml file.


If you would like to develop within a Devcontainer, you may provide the --devcontainer option to the sail:install command. The --devcontainer option will instruct the sail:install command to publish a default .devcontainer/devcontainer.json file to the root of your application:

Sometimes you may need to share your site publicly in order to preview your site for a colleague or to test webhook integrations with your application. To share your site, you may use the share command. After executing this command, you will be issued a random URL that you may use to access your application:

Both the ship and the crew were awesome! We especially liked the freedom to move around the entire ship from start to finish. Also not having it narrated turned out to be a plus - it was much nicer to just have informal talks with any of the crew members - they were all very nice and very knowledgeable. They engage volunteers to help and my son really had a great time helping to hoist the sail!

We've been on the Shearwater Brunch Cruise 3 times, & once on the Clipper City Beer/Lobster Roll Cruise. Excellent quality food & beverages, friendly & professional staff. I prefer sailing on the Shearwater since it's smaller & I like the more "intimate" experience. Can't say enough good things about Manhattan by Sail & I can't wait to go on another sail!

The Clipper City schooner cruise should be on every NYC visitor's list! We four travelers took a leisurely, exciting, and informative sail around the Statue of Liberty and can't wait to do it again. The captain and crew were personable, professional, and took excellent care of their passengers. It's also really easy to find. What a great experience and it was my 16 year old grandson's very favorite activity during our July trip! It's tops in customer service, communication, and it's TOPS on my to-do list for our next NYC trip!

A friend of ours suggested we try this and it did not disappoint! We had taken a ferry trip last time we were in New York and I have to say the sail boat is definitely the way to go! The staff were all so friendly and work SO hard. Views of the Statue of Liberty and Manhattan were incredible! A really super experience!

Sails may be attached to a mast, boom or other spar or may be attached to a wire that is suspended by a mast. They are typically raised by a line, called a halyard, and their angle with respect to the wind is usually controlled by a line, called a sheet. In use, they may be designed to be curved in both directions along their surface, often as a result of their curved edges. Battens may be used to extend the trailing edge of a sail beyond the line of its attachment points.

Other non-rotating airfoils that power sailing craft include wingsails, which are rigid wing-like structures, and kites that power kite-rigged vessels, but do not employ a mast to support the airfoil and are beyond the scope of this article.

The square rig carries the primary driving sails on horizontal spars, which are perpendicular or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts. These spars are called yards and their tips, beyond the last stay, are called the yardarms[1]. A ship mainly so rigged is called a square-rigger.[2] The square rig is aerodynamically most efficient when running (sailing downwind).[3]

Sails from ancient Egypt are depicted around 3200 BCE,[7][8] where reed boats sailed upstream against the River Nile's current. Ancient Sumerians used square rigged sailing boats at about the same time, and it is believed they established sea trading routes as far away as the Indus valley. Greeks and Phoenicians began trading by ship by around 1200 BCE.

V-shaped square rigs with two spars that come together at the hull were the ancestral sailing rig of the Austronesian peoples before they developed the fore-and-aft crab claw, tanja and junk rigs.[9] The date of introduction of these later Austronesian sails is disputed.[10]

Lateen sails emerged by around the 2nd century CE in the Mediterranean. They did not become common until the 5th century, when there is evidence that the Mediterranean square sail (which had been in wide use throughout the classical period) was undergoing a simplification of its rigging components.[a] Both the increasing popularity of the lateen and the changes to the contemporary square rig are suggested to be cost saving measures, reducing the number of expensive components needed to fit out a ship.[11]

It has been a common and erroneous presumption among maritime historians that lateen had significantly better sailing performance than the square rig of the same period. Analysis of voyages described in contemporary accounts and also in various replica vessels demonstrates that the performance of square rig and lateen were very similar. Lateen provided a cheaper rig to build and maintain, with no degradation of performance.[12][11]

The lateen was adopted by Arab seafarers (usually in the sub-type: the settee sail), but the date is uncertain, with no firm evidence for their use in the Western Indian Ocean before 1500 CE. There is, however, good iconographic evidence of square sails being used by Arab, Persian and Indian ships in this region in, for instance, 1519.[13]

Austronesian invention of catamarans, outriggers, and the bi-sparred triangular crab claw sails enabled their ships to sail for vast distances in open ocean. It led to the Austronesian Expansion. From Taiwan, they rapidly settled the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia, then later sailed further onwards to Micronesia, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar, eventually settling a territory spanning half the globe.[17][18]

The proto-Austronesian words for sail, lay(r), and some other rigging parts date to about 3000 BCE when this group began their Pacific expansion.[19] The absence of proto-Austronesian words for some rigging parts is evidence that the more complex sails were later developments, so calling into question the traditionalist model of Austronesian sail development.[10] Austronesian rigs were distinctive in that they had spars supporting both the upper and lower edges of the sails (and sometimes in between), in contrast to western rigs which only had a spar on the upper edge.[17][18] The sails were also made from salt-resistant woven leaves, usually from pandan plants.[20][21]

Crab claw sails used with single-outrigger ships in Micronesia, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar were intrinsically unstable when tacking leeward. To deal with this, Austronesians in these regions developed the shunting technique in sailing, in conjunction with uniquely reversible single-outriggers. In the rest of Austronesia, crab claw sails were mainly for double-outrigger (trimarans) and double-hulled (catamarans) boats, which remained stable even leeward.[18][22][17][23][24]

In western Island Southeast Asia, later square sails also evolved from the crab claw sail, the tanja and the junk rig, both of which retained the Austronesian characteristic of having more than one spar supporting the sail.[25][26]

For apparent wind angles aligned with the entry point of the sail, the sail acts as an airfoil and lift is the predominant component of propulsion. For apparent wind angles behind the sail, lift diminishes and drag increases as the predominant component of propulsion. For a given true wind velocity over the surface, a sail can propel a craft to a higher speed, on points of sail when the entry point of the sail is aligned with the apparent wind, than it can with the entry point not aligned, because of a combination of the diminished force from airflow around the sail and the diminished apparent wind from the velocity of the craft. Because of limitations on speed through the water, displacement sailboats generally derive power from sails generating lift on points of sail that include close-hauled through broad reach (approximately 40 to 135 off the wind).[28] Because of low friction over the surface and high speeds over the ice that create high apparent wind speeds for most points of sail, iceboats can derive power from lift further off the wind than displacement boats.[29]

High-performance yachts, including the International C-Class Catamaran, have used or use rigid wing sails, which perform better than traditional soft sails but are more difficult to manage.[32] A rigid wing sail was used by Stars and Stripes, the defender which won the 1988 America's Cup, and by USA-17, the challenger which won the 2010 America's Cup.[33] USA 17's performance during the 2010 America's Cup races demonstrated a velocity made good upwind of over twice the wind speed and downwind of over 2.5 times the wind speed and the ability to sail as close as 20 degrees off the apparent wind.[34]

The shape of a sail is defined by its edges and corners in the plane of the sail, laid out on a flat surface. The edges may be curved, either to extend the sail's shape as an airfoil or to define its shape in use. In use, the sail becomes a curved shape, adding the dimension of depth or draft.

Sail characteristics derive, in part, from the design, construction and the attributes of the fibers, which are woven together to make the sail cloth. There are several key factors in evaluating a fiber for suitability in weaving a sail-cloth: initial modulus, breaking strength (tenacity), creep, and flex strength. Both the initial cost and its durability of the material define its cost-effectiveness over time.[37][46]

Cross-cut sails have the panels sewn parallel to one another, often parallel to the foot of the sail, and are the least expensive of the two sail constructions. Triangular cross-cut sail panels are designed to meet the mast and stay at an angle from either the warp or the weft (on the bias) to allow stretching along the luff, but minimize stretching on the luff and foot, where the fibers are aligned with the edges of the sail.[48] 041b061a72

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