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Cane Sugar Engineering By Peter Rein

contains useful information of a practical nature for design and/or the operation of sugar mills. Sufficient background information and theory is given for an understanding of all the practical aspects. Sources of further information are given for more theoretical background. The text is comprehensive covering all aspects of cane sugar and related operations and processes provides an up to date source of information for those involved in all aspects of cane sugar processing.

Cane Sugar Engineering By Peter Rein

Prof. Peter Rein has contributed to more than 100 papers including patents and has made numerous contributions to books and invited lectures. Professor Peter Rein is well-known throughout the sugar world for his outstanding contributions, his openness, and his leadership skills. Prof. Peter Rein has been one of the most renowned cane sugar technologists in the last 40 years.

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ISBN 2007 Verlag Dr. Albert KG 16,Berlin, Germany Telefon: +49 (0) 30 8035678Telefax: +49 (0) 30 8032049 E-Mail: [email protected] All rightsreserved (including those of translation into other languages). Nopart of this book may be reproduced in any form - by photoprint,microfilm, or any other means - transmitted or translated into amachine language without written permission from the publishers.Registered names, trademarks, etc., used in this book and notmarked as such are not to be considered unprotected. Composition:Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens KG, Berlin Printing and binding: ElbeDruckerei Wittenberg Printed in Germany

Professor Peter Rein was born in South Africa. In 1965 he wasawarded a B.S. in Chemical Engineering at the University of CapeTown leading on to a M.S. in 1967 at the same university. In 1973he was awarded a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at the University ofNatal. He began his career as a Research Officer with De BeersDiamond Division between 1967 and 1969 after which he transferredto research and production engineering with TonSugar until 1979. Inthat year he was promoted to Consulting Technologist, whichposition he held until 1992, when he was further promoted toTechnical Director until January, 2000. In February 2000 heaccepted a Professorship at the Audubon Sugar Institute, LSUAgCenter at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, becoming Head of thatinstitute. Prof. Rein is registered as a Chartered Engineer (UK)and a Professional Engineer (South Africa). He is a member of theInstitution of Chemical Engineers, a Fellow of the South AfricanInstitution of Chemical Engineers and a Member of the AmericanInstitute of Chemical Engineers. His membership of sugarorganizations include: The South African Sugar Technologists'Association, the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists,the Sugar Industry Technologists, and the American Society of SugarCane Technologists. Prof. Peter Rein has contributed to more than100 papers including patents and has made numerous contributions tobooks and invited lectures. He

has also been the recipient of many awards including thefollowing: - Part of team awarded South African Institute ofMechanical Engineers Projects and Systems Award 1985 for FelixtonSugar Mill Project. Leader of team awarded South AfricanInstitution of Chemical Engineers Innovation Award 1993, forContinuous Pan Development. South African Associated Scientific andTechnical Societies National Award for Continuous Vacuum PanCrystallizers. - Sugar Industry Technologists (New York) SugarCrystal Award 1997 for achievement in sugar technology. Firstrecipient of Sugar Processing Research Institute (New Orleans)Technology Award 1998 for outstanding contribution to sugarprocessing and technology. - Gold Medal of the South African SugarCane Technologists Association, presented in August 2000. ElectedHonorary Life Member International Society of Sugar CaneTechnologists, February 2005. Professor Peter Rein is well-knownthroughout the sugar world for his outstanding contributions, hisopenness, and his leadership skills. Prof. Peter Rein has been oneof the most renowned cane sugar technologists in the last 40years.

Although it is with some trepidation that I have authored a newbook on sugarcane technology, it seems that it is an opportunetime. Most practical sugarcane technology texts are dated anddevelopments in technology in the last 25 years have beensubstantial. Undertaking the task of writing a book was thesuggestion of the publisher Dr. of Verlag Dr. Albert Bartens, whorecognized the need and persuaded me to produce a book of practicalusefulness. Many of the previous topics have received a newtreatment here and new material is evident particularly in relationto cane quality and payment, cane diffusion, clarification andfiltration, syrup clarification, continuous pan boiling, molassesexhaustion, chemical control of factories, boilers, steamgeneration and steam and water balances. The challenges have beento combine the new technology with the old, to be criticallyselective in the material published and to produce a book coherentin form and content. It is important also to maintain a balancedperspective between theoretical and empirical information. Thepracticing engineer must use both to be effective, because in mostcases a theoretical background promotes a more productive use ofempirical information. Where possible a consistent structure hasbeen followed in each chapter, starting with objectives, followedby theoretical and fundamental issues, then design, equipmentdetails, operation and control, in roughly that order. Whileattempting to be comprehensive, the temptation to be totallyinclusive has had to be resisted, in order to meet the objectivesof the book. The book is designed to provide relevant and usefulinformation for the practicing engineer and technologist, as

well as for those involved in design and optimization ofprocesses and equipment. Further references are provided for thoseneeding to delve deeper. The book covers most of the backgroundmaterial presented in courses on Sugar Processing Engineering andSugar Factory Design in the Louisiana State University College ofEngineering. A valuable foundation for sugarcane technology hasbeen laid by earlier authors, particularly Honig, Spencer, Meade,Hugot and Chen. However, most of the information in this book hasbeen gleaned from the literature and from those with whom I haveworked over many years and from whom I have learned most of what 1know. I identify with the quote of Isaac Newton: "If I have seenfurther, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants". I have beenmost fortunate in enlisting the aid of outstanding who authoredroughly a quarter of the book. They are all experts in their fieldsand add immeasurably to its value and usefulness. I am grateful tooto those who have undertaken to review the chapters, in particularDr. Mike Inkson, Ian Smith, Dave Muzzell, Dr. Luis Bento, Dr. EdRichard, Jimmy Cargill, Dr. Regis Lima Verde Leal and Dr. DaveLove. Their comments and advice have been invaluable. John Duttonalso contributed thorough diligent editing and assistance. I havebeen fortunate to have associated during my career with these andother technologists in the international sugar community. Inattempting to produce a relevant text, SI units have been adopted.This will not be strange in most of the sugar-producing areas.However, the ISO set of notation has been adopted, and the symbolsused

might appear unfamiliar to some readers. 1 believe thatfamiliarity with them will prove that they are in fact easy to useand less subject to confusion. There is a real need forstandardization in this area. In this respect, the beet sugarindustry has been more proactive, and the system used here bringscane and beet sugar technology closer together. I am indebted tothe Louisiana State University Agricultural Center for theirsupport. Dr. Bruhns proved to be far more than a publisher. Hisconstructive suggestions have added value and identified errors. Healso helped to keep me

2.1.2 Effect on recoverable sugar 2.1.3 Effect on mill capacity2.1.4 Field soil and dirt 2.1.5 Dextran 2.1.6 Effect on mill costs2.2 Cane payment systems 2.2.1 Options for payment 2.2.2 Canepayment recoverable sugar formulae Distribution of proceeds between2.2.3 growers and millers 2.3 Cane sampling Core sampling of cane2.3.1 2.3.2 Hatch sampling Grab sampling 2.3.3 2.3.4 Firstexpressed juice sampling Cane tracking 2.3.5 2.4 Methods ofanalysis Press method 2.4.1 2.4.2 Wet disintegration method 2.4.3First expressed juice 2.4.4 Accurate measurement of sucrose bychromatography 2.4.5 Measurements References

Alternating current Automatic voltage regulator BHR Boilinghouse recovery BOD Biochemical oxygen demand CAD Continuous ashdischarge (stoker) CCS Commercial cane sugar CDR deposition rateCFD Computational fluid dynamics COD Chemical oxygen demand CRBCorrected reduced boiling house recovery CRE Corrected reducedextraction DAC Direct analysis of cane DAF Dissolved air flotationDC Direct current DOL Direct-on-line DS Dry substance or dissolvedsolids (Brix) EM Extraneous matter ERC Estimated recoverablecrystal ESP Electrostatic precipitator GC Gas chromatography GCVGross calorific value GPS Global positioning system HADP Hexosealkaline degradation products HP High pressure High performance ionchromatography HPLC High performance liquid chromatography ICUMSAInternational Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis

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